EMS Workforce

Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are a vital component of the emergency care workforce. In the United States, they respond to nearly 20 million requests for emergency assistance (i.e., 9-1-1 calls) per year. EMS personnel provide treatment and transportation to definitive care for people suffering from acute illnesses and injuries in the prehospital and interfacility settings. However, the nature of EMS work continues to evolve over time. EMS personnel are also a critical component of novel alternative care models that are increasingly being used, such as mobile integrated healthcare and hospital-at-home care models.

The goals of our work are three-fold: 1) to describe patterns of the EMS workforce; 2) to identify and define the occupational health and safety risks of EMS personnel; and 3) to understand the care EMS provides in the prehospital setting, particularly for obstetric events and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

For more information, please contact Dr. Rebecca Cash at rcash@mgh.harvard.edu.

Select EMS publications:

  1. Cash RE, Anderson SE, Lancaster KE, Lu B, Rivard MK, Camargo CA Jr, and Panchal AR. Comparing the prevalence of poor sleep and stress metrics in basic versus advanced life support emergency medical services personnel. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2020;24(5):644-656. PMID: 32314941
  2. Peters GA, Ordoobadi AJ, Cash RE, Wong ML, Avillach P, and Camargo CA Jr. Association of Affordable Care Act implementation with ambulance utilization for asthma emergencies in New York City, 2008-2018. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Nov 2;3(11):e2025586. PMID: 33175178.
  3. Cash RE, Rivard MK, Chrzan K, Mercer CB, Camargo CA Jr, and Panchal AR. Comparison of volunteer and paid EMS professionals in the United States. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2020; in press. PMID: 32271639.
  4. Cash RE, Rivard MK, Camargo CA Jr, Powell JR, and Panchal AR. Emergency medical services personnel awareness and training about personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2020; in press. PMID: 33211613.
  5. Cash RE, Clay CE, Leggio WJ, and Camargo CA Jr. Geographic distribution of accredited paramedic education programs in the United States. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2020; in press. PMID: 33258728.